在美逾期滞留政策又有新变化

May 9, 2019

北卡罗来纳州中区的地区法院法官发布了一项全国性的初步禁令,立即生效,来暂停特朗普总统颁布的学生类签证(F,J,M签证)非法居留日期起算方式的新政策。该项新政于2018年5月10日发布,并于2018年8月9日生效,直至法院进一步下令。

 

逾期滞留新政发布以来,对在美留学生的影响非常大。许多留学生甚至在自身不知情的情况之下造成了逾期滞留,为今后的身份转换、再次入境美国造成了一定的障碍。

 

正值毕业季,相信许多在美留学生对毕业之后的合法留美时长有所疑问。同时随着新财年H-1B抽签结果的公布,不少申请者对H-1B生效前在美身份的合法维持也较为困惑。今天,我们将为大家解析留学生在毕业之后,以及H-1B生效之前,如何维持在美合法居留的身份,以避免造成不必要的麻烦。

 

Grace Period

通常来讲,F-1学生在完成学业后有60天的宽限期(Grace Period),J-1学生或者国际交换学者的宽限期为30天。在这段时间内,学生可以在美国境内合法地居住、旅行或者处理离境之前的各项事务。由于宽限期是按天数来计算,不是以月来计量的,所以正确计算天数非常重要。

 

对于在OPT期间的F-1学生而言,他们的宽限期有两段时间。第一段是在修完学业之后,OPT生效之前;第二段则是OPT结束之后。两段OPT Grace Period最长都有60天的时间,这段期间内F-1学生可以合法居留,但是不能工作。

 

H-1B Cap-Gap

H-1B Cap-Gap是指在OPT结束之后,到10月1日H-1B正式生效之间的时间段。要注意,并不是所有人都能申请Cap-Gap,通常只有在OPT失效之前就把H-1B申请递交上去的申请者(并且其H-1B正处于pending期或是被approve了)才能申请Cap-Gap。 在Cap-Gap期间,H-1B申请人可以在美国合法工作。

 

有一些申请者在4月1日申请H-1B之前他们的OPT就已经失效了,但其还处于Grace Period时期。在这种情况下,如果申请人的H-1B被抽中并进入审理阶段,那么在审理期间一直到9月30日,申请人都可以合法居留在美国,但是不能工作。

 

对于Cap-Gap已经过期,但仍没有收到H-1B批准信的申请者来说,这段期间内继续工作是违法的,申请者只能等到H-1B获批之后才能恢复工作。从10月1日到申请结果出来这段时间内,申请者可以合法留在美国等结果,但无法进行工作。

 

假设H-1B申请被拒,那么相应的H-1B Cap-Gap也会立即结束。通常来说,被拒绝的H-1B申请者必须在60天内(从拒信收到指示开始)离境。如果H-1B被拒是因为违反身份规定(status violation),则没有60天宽限日,申请人必须马上离境。

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