合同中附加条款的作用和说明

June 11, 2019

合同中的附加条款通常是商业合同中的最后一个章节,其中内容大多数是法律技术性的条款,自然就会成为一个比较少被“重视”的章节。但是,这一部分内容绝对不是我们通常认为的可有可无的环节,因为这一部分在大多数情况下直接关系到合同一方违约后另一方是否能得到有效的救济,因此附加条款是真正的,有关争议解决的部分。我们今天就将这一部分中经常出现的条款一一给大家讲解,这样大家在审阅时更容易理解进而做出相应的修改。

 

1. 通知

例:Any notice, demand or other communication required or permitted to be given pursuant to this Agreement shall have been sufficiently given for all purposes if (a) delivered personally to the Member to whom such notice, demand or other communication is directed or (b) sent by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid, addressed to the Member at her address set forth in this Agreement or (c) by any other means upon which all Members may agree for such notice purposes, including electronic means of communication.  Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, any such notice shall be deemed to have been given (a) three (3) business days after the date on which it was deposited in a regularly maintained receptacle for the deposit of United States mail, addressed and sent as set forth in this Section, or (b) if sent electronically, 24 hours after the date on which such notice was initially sent.

 

本条中详细的列举了合约双方需要给对方进行重要的事项通知时应当遵守的方式方法和与之相应的相关通知送达期限等。这一条的作用在于 1. 确保合同双方在约定向下的责任义务都由合同各方所知悉。 2.与合同其他相关条款一同在争议出现时有效确定诉讼时效。其中,第二点尤其重要,在实践中诉讼时效的争议直接关系到案件的最终结果,因此切不可对其轻视。

 

2. 修改

例:No amendment to this Agreement shall be effective unless made in a writing duly executed by of all of the Members and specifically referring to each provision of this Agreement being amended.

 

任何合同的修改都应当经过合同双方的书面协议,不然任何单方面的修改都应当被视作无效。在日常商业交往中,经常出现口头协议而一方不履行的情况,这种情况下,书面形式的确认,包括邮件,信息等都可以被认为是书面认可的一种,并不一定需要重新修改现有合同。

 

3. 弃权

例: No failure of a Member to exercise, and no delay by a Member in exercising, any right or remedy under this Agreement shall constitute a waiver of such right or remedy.  No waiver by a Member of any such right or remedy under this Agreement shall be effective unless made in a writing duly executed by all Members and specifically referring to each such right or remedy being waived.

 

在任何情况下,即使合同中的一方没有行使其合法权利,也并不代表其放弃了自己的权利。任何一方放弃其合同项下的权利都应当以书面的形式作出。

 

4. 合同整体/可分割性

例: Whenever possible, each provision of this Agreement shall be interpreted in such a manner as to be effective and valid under applicable law.  However, if any provision of this Agreement shall be prohibited by or invalid under such law, it shall be deemed modified to conform to the minimum requirements of such law or, if for any reason it is not deemed so modified, it shall be prohibited or invalid only to the extent of such prohibition or invalidity without the remainder thereof or any other such provision being prohibited or invalid.

 

在本条中规定,即使在任何情况下合同中的一条或者多条规定因为任何原因被判定为无效,其他条款不应因此受到影响。同时,该条款应当被视为按照规定进行修改以适应相应法律法规的要求。

 

5. 法律适用

例:This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, without giving effect to any choice or conflict of law provision or rule (whether of the State of New York or any other jurisdiction。

本条规定,本协议应当遵照纽约州的法律进行解释。但是需要注意的是,因为美国各州可能有截然不同的法律规定,因此在涉及跨州贸易时应当加入本段中后半段的文字,以保证法院不会再任何情况下适用非纽约州法律,来确保的合同的有效性有合理的预期。

 

6. 效力与第三人

例:This Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of all Parties, and each of the successors and assignees of the Parties This Agreement is made solely and specifically among and for the benefit of the parties hereto, and their respective successors and assigns subject to the express provisions hereof relating to successors and assigns, and no other person will have any rights, interest, or claims hereunder or be entitled to any benefits under or on account of this Agreement as a third-party beneficiary or otherwise.

 

在这一条中,明确规定了这一份协议的效力范围包括所有协议方及其转让协议项下权利后的受让人或者继承人,并且本协议并没有给予任何第三方任何权利。

虽然任何合同中的约定都不能给无关的第三方赋予任何义务或者责任,但是并不禁止双方约定给予第三方某些利益。因此,在某些特殊情况下,合约中应当明确规定合约本身并没有给予任何第三方任何利益或者权利来避免不必要的麻烦。

 

7. 仲裁

例:Any dispute or controversy arising out of or in connection with the agreement or the breach thereof, or the interpretation of any provisions hereof, shall be determined and settled by arbitration in New York, New York in accordance with the rules of the American Arbitration Association.  Any award rendered therein shall be final and binding on the parties hereto and judgment may be entered thereon in any court having jurisdiction thereof. The costs of such arbitration shall be “paid by” the non-prevailing party. The determination of which party has prevailed and to what extent shall be an issued to be determined by the arbitrator.

 

本条规定双方如有争议时,应当遵照美国仲裁委员会的相关规定,在纽约进行仲裁,该仲裁结果拥有最终效力,败诉一方应当负责相关费用。仲裁作为一个替代纠纷解决机制,其制度发展在美国已经形成了一套完整的体系,作为民事司法资源的补充,仲裁程序在时间上消耗的时间要小于普通的法庭程序,其程序设置更加灵活方便,且法院通常认可仲裁员作出的裁决。 仲裁员通常都由具有丰富经验的退休法官或者资深律师担任,因此他们的裁决也具有极大的说服力。在一些金额较高的合同中,双方也可以约定由多个仲裁员组成仲裁委员会来审理,仲裁委员的选任和人员组成都可以由合同双方自由约定。仲裁程序因为属于私人程序,因此争议双方需要支付仲裁员的费用,通常这笔费用也是一笔可观的花费。

需要注意的是,仲裁判决虽然通常可以得到法院的认可,但是满足仲裁相关规定的情况下,也并不是说仲裁决定不可以被推翻,例如当仲裁员出现徇私舞弊或者在判决非常不公平时,当事人也可以向法院提起诉讼要求撤销相关仲裁决议。

 

8. 意思表示的唯一性(Entire Agreement)

例:This Agreement (including the Schedule(s) and Exhibit(s) attached hereto constitutes the full and entire understanding and agreement of the parties hereto with respect to the subject matter contained herein and therein and supersedes any and all other communications, representations, agreements, understandings and letters of intent, whether written or oral, between or among any of the parties hereto with respect to the subject matter contained herein and therein.

 

本条明确约定了本合约及其附件是双方全部意思表示的体现,在签订本协议以后,任何之前的或者之后的口头或者书面约定,如果没有按照本合约中的约定对本合约进行修改的话,本合约应但是唯一的具有约束力的法律文件。因此,当双方存在争议时,即使合同中的约定和一方当初的立场或者设想存在存入,一旦本协议经过双方签署,即为双方的真实意思表示,任何一方都不能以己方不知情或者非己方的真实意思表达来作为抗辩理由。

 

9. 独立审阅

例:Each party acknowledges that such Party (i) has read the Agreement, (ii) has been represented in the preparation, negotiation and execution of the Agreements by legal counsel of such Party’s own choice, and (iii) understands the terms and consequences of the Agreements and is fully aware of the legal and binding effect thereof.

 

在很多合同争议中,双方的争议焦点都不可避免的着重在一些条款的解释上,当双方都无法提供充分的证据时,或者,当双方提供的证据都没有明显的比另外一方更有效力时,法院会采取偏向非撰写方的条款解释。本条的规定中则有两层含义: 1. 双方各自聘请律师进行了详细的斟酌,因此所有条款都是双方的真实意思表示; 2. 所有的条款都已经经过了双方的协商,因此撰写方在合同中并没有获得任何高于其他方的话语权。

 

10. 副本

例:This Agreement may be executed in counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall be deemed to be one and the same agreement.  The exchange of copies hereof, including signature pages hereto, by facsimile, e‑mail or other means of electronic transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery hereof as to the parties and may be used in lieu of the original Agreement for all purposes.  Signatures transmitted by facsimile, e-mail or other means of electronic transmission shall be deemed to be original signatures for all purposes.

 

合同的原件,副本等都应具有同样的效力,签字也可以以书面,电子或者其他形式作出。但是需要注意的是,在任何情况下合同一方都应当留存所有签名,不然无法证明合同已经生效并产生法律效力。

 

11. 叙述性条款

通常叙述性条款出现在合同的正式条款之前,顾名思义,叙述性条款记录了双方在商业合作中各方的意愿和双方的合作目的等。通常,如果一个交易越复杂,那么为了达成交易目的,我们需要的不同协议就越多,因而每一个协议都有其功能,但是这些功能性在合同的行文中并没有办法直接体现,此时就需要叙述性条款来明确协议的用途,确保当双方在审阅多个协议时不至于陷入因为协议相互之间的引用而产生的歧义。

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Contact marketing@jiaesq.com for more information or to seek permission to reproduce content. This blog is intended for general information purposes only. It does not constitute legal advice. The reader should consult with knowledgeable legal counsel to determine how applicable laws apply to specific facts and situations. Blog posts are based on the most current information at the time they are written. Since it is possible that the laws or other circumstances may have changed since publication, please call us to discuss any action you may be considering as a result of reading this blog.  

 

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