有法律效力的合同都具备哪些要素?

June 11, 2019

我们在工作和生活中常常会需要接触到合同,比如:我们租房会需要租房合同,工作需要劳动合同,就连任何网站注册,注册过程的一部分其实也是和网站签署一个合同。每天的耳濡目染,我们对合同这个词已经不再陌生了,但是大家知道什么样的合同是有效的么?或者说,一份有效的合同都需要具备哪些要素?

 

每个领域的合同都会有本领域的特点,有时对合同的有效性会有额外的要求,一份合同无效的原因可以有很多,比如:合同内容违反了法律,合同一方有欺骗行为,或者合同缺乏实质内容。但是,无论哪个领域的合同,其有效性一定具备以下四个要素:

 

1. Offer(要约)Offer就是合同一方提出等待对方接受的条款。offer的形式有很多种,可以是书信、报纸、广告、传真、邮件,甚至是某些行为,比如正在运营的公共车或者出租车,或者正在营业的发廊等。

 

2. Acceptance(接受)

顾名思义acceptance就是对提出offer一方条款的接纳。就像offer有很多形式一样,acceptance也有多种形式,可以是书面的,口头的,也可以是行为上的。比如,乘客上了公车或者出租车,或者顾客进了发廊,跟发型师交换了意见,并坐下来等待服务一样。在以上例子中,乘客和发廊顾客的行为等同于接受了offer。他们知道享受服务需要付费。上车,或者坐下来等待剪发的行为已经明确表达了他们愿意接受这样的付出。

 

3. Consideration(代价)

Consideration是合同的必要因素,但同时也是大家比较容易忽略的一项。因为大家常常会把合同和承诺混淆。一份有效的合同需要双方都付出代价,付出不一定是以金钱的形式,可以是服务或其他利益的考量。付出可以是即时的也可以是将来的。有一种情况例外,就是没有“付出”的那方因为对方的承诺而有后续的投入,并因为对方违反承诺而遭到了损失。

 

4. Mutual intend to be bound(双方想要被合同约束的共同意愿)

最后一条就是双方都明确表示愿意受他们之间合同的约束。


如果您有任何关于合同法律效力相关的问题,或需要专业律师帮助您起草或修改合同,请点击这里预约免费咨询

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