新小费分享制度给予雇主更高自由度,到底是好还是坏?

October 15, 2019

一直以来,收取小费员工的薪资标准,和雇主该如何实行小费抵薪及设立小费共享的规则,引起了相关立法者、监管者和法院之间的激烈辩论。今年6月时,纽约还曾就“取消小费抵薪政策”进行公听会,当时反对声音明显占优,甚至还因此造成了一定的混乱。反对该提案的主要群体包括,餐饮业及其他一些服务行业中,可收取小费的员工,他们称此提案将“变相减薪”。

 

上周三(10月9日),美国劳工部(DOL)就此宣布了一项拟议的新规则,旨在使与小费相关的立法,以及先前机构设立的规则及解释能更加清晰。在今天的文章中,我们将为读者解析这项拟议的新规则中所包含的内容,了解其可能造成的实际影响。

 

“小费抵薪”政策

 

美国《公平劳工标准法》(FLSA)通常要求雇主至少向雇员支付联邦最低工资,现行标准为每小时7.25美元(纽约州雇主需参见纽约州薪资标准)。其中,FLSA的第3(m)条允许符合特定要求的雇主,可制定并实行“小费抵薪(Tip Credit)”制度,即将一定金额的小费作为满足“赚取小费的员工”最低工资标准的一部分进行计数。

 

该政策仅适用于“赚取小费的员工”。且在实行过程中,若无特殊情况,员工有权保留所有已获得的小费。但是,此要求并不排除采取“小费抵薪”政策的雇主,同时设立“小费池”的权利:包含于“小费池”的小费仅在“通常且定期收到小费”的员工之间进行共享。

 

“小费池”新规提案

 

美国劳工部提议采用《2018财年综合授权法案》第3(m)(2)(B)节规定:无论雇主是否采取小费抵薪制度,雇主、经理和主管都无权扣留员工赚取的任何小费,或参与“小费池(Tip Pool)”的分享。同时,劳工部提议纳入新的记录以协助对该新规的管理。 

 

劳工部拟议的该项新规将允许未采用“小费抵薪”制度的雇主建立小费池,将员工赚取的小费,同时划分给传统意义上“赚取小费的员工”,和“不收取小费的员工”(如:洗碗工、厨师等)。对于小费的分配比例,提案中并未作出详细规定。

 

“小费抵薪”工时计算

 

此外,该拟议规则指出,赚取小费的员工在履行可获得小费的工作职责时,从事其他相关的非小费岗位工作,雇主仍可采用“小费抵薪”政策,并不限定记为此类的工时长度。新规限定,员工必须在履行产生小费岗位职责的同时,或前后的合理时间段内执行非小费岗位的职责,雇主才可进行小费抵扣。

 

同时,拟议的法规还明确了哪些非小费职责可归类为与赚取小费工作相关的职责,例如:清洁和摆放桌椅、烤面包、煮咖啡、以及偶尔洗碗或杯子等,不带小费的相关职务都有资格计入其中。

 

目前至2019年12月9日,该拟议的新规正处于意见征询阶段,随后DOL将发布并实施最终法规。劳工部鼓励有关各方对拟议的规则提出意见。拟议提案的公告(NPRM),以及提交评论的程序,可以在工时处(WHD)的拟议规则网站上找到。

 

我所将持续提供该法案最新进展及相关分析,并及时协助各位雇主完成政策修改及合规。若您希望对新规有更深入的了解,或对纽约现行法规的适用范围等存在疑问,欢迎点击此处与专业律师预约咨询。

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Contact marketing@jiaesq.com for more information or to seek permission to reproduce content. This blog is intended for general information purposes only. It does not constitute legal advice. The reader should consult with knowledgeable legal counsel to determine how applicable laws apply to specific facts and situations. Blog posts are based on the most current information at the time they are written. Since it is possible that the laws or other circumstances may have changed since publication, please call us to discuss any action you may be considering as a result of reading this blog.  

 

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