中美贸易协定签约在即,美国取消对中国“汇率操纵国”的认定

January 14, 2020

​据媒体报道,美国财政部于1月13日发表半年度汇率政策报告,取消了去年8月对中国“汇率操纵国”的认定。美国财政部发布的《主要贸易伙伴的宏观经济和外汇政策》半年报告指出,美国将中国、德国、爱尔兰、意大利、日本、韩国、马来西亚、新加坡、瑞士和越南10个国家列入汇率政策监测名单,目前,这些美国主要的贸易伙伴中,无一符合汇率操纵国法定标准。

 

2019年8月6日,美国财政部将中国列为“汇率操纵国”,这是25年来,美国首次认定中国为汇率操纵国。汇率操纵国表示一个国家人为地操控汇率,使它显得相对地低,令其出口价看似便宜。由于产品较便宜,深受进口国消费者喜欢并减少购买本土产品,导致进口国就业流失。操纵国通过牺牲别国利益,为本国创造更多就业机会及享受较高的国内生产总值。

 

美国财政部该行为遭到中方、经济学界和权威国际机构的普遍反对。国际货币基金组织去年8月发表对中国经济金融形势与政策进行年度分析评估的“第四条款磋商报告”时,重申人民币汇率水平与经济基本面基本相符,并不存在明显高估或低估。

 

前美国财政部官员、战略与国际研究中心高级顾问Mark Sobel在推特上表示,美国财政部此举是一则好消息。中国从一开始就不应被认定为“汇率操纵国”,中国经常账户顺差占国内生产总值比重较小,几乎不构成干涉。中国人民银行货币政策委员会近期召开2019年第四季度例会认为,人民币汇率总体稳定,双向浮动弹性提升,应对外部冲击的能力增强。

 

此外,国务院副总理刘鹤一行代表已于1月13日抵达美国华盛顿,准备与美方签署第一阶段贸易协议。

 

签约仪式预计在当地时间1月15日举行。据新华社报道,协议本文有九个章节,其中包括知识产权、技术转让、粮食和副产品、金融服务以及争端解决等。此举将巩固两国耗时近两年谈判达成的第一阶段协议,使世界最大的两个经济体正式实现贸易休战。特朗普总统在推特上宣布了签字日期,并表示计划在“晚些时候”前往中国,就第二阶段协议展开谈判。

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