合法绿卡和签证申请双双受限,特朗普新提案解读

August 13, 2019

8月12日美国国土安全局(DHS)发布了《公共负担不予受理》最终规则提案。该提案提倡,以通过拒绝低收入或低教育水平的绿卡或签证申请人的方式,来控制(被批准的)合法移民数量。最终目的是确保合法暂时或永久居留在美的外国人,无需依赖于公共福利政策生活。

 

 

修订后的《美国移民法案》(“The Immigration and Nationality Act”)规定DHS可依据签证申请人未来成为“公共负担(Public Charge)”的可能性作为理由拒绝其绿卡或签证申请。同时,最终规则重新定义“公共负担”为,在36个月内,接受一项或多项社会福利累计超过12个月的个人。

 

最终规则定义的“公共福利”将涵盖更多种类。重新定义的“公共福利”包括任何作为收入保障的现金福利,如补充保障收入(Supplemental Security Income),贫困家庭临时援助(Temporary Assistance to Needy Families),营养补充援助计划(Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program);大多数形式的医疗补助;以及某些住房计划。

 

而一系列提供给特殊人群的公共福利被排除在外,包括:美国武装部队现役或预备役的个人及其配偶和子女的公共福利;提供给被收养的外籍儿童和获得美国公民身份的儿童公共福利;21岁以下外国人和孕妇的医疗补助;用于学校服务的医疗补助(包括根据“残疾人教育法”提供的服务);和针对紧急医疗服务的医疗补助。

 

另外,该项规定不适用于难民,庇护者,特殊青少年移民(Special Immigrant Juveniles),人口贩卖受害者(T nonimmigrants),特定犯罪活动受害者(U nonimmigrants)或家庭暴力受害者(VAWA self-petitioners)等。 

 

最终规则还赋予USCIS酌情向递交身份转换申请的外国人征收“公共负担”保证金的权力。在特定情况下,依据《公共负担不予受理》规则,USCIC将有权征收最低为8,100美元的保证金,实际征收金额可根据申请者具体个人情况裁定。同时,该规则还将使已经获得公共利益超过一定限额的非移民外国人无法延长现有非移民身份的逗留期限或申请身份转换。

 

此次发布的最终规定将于美东时间10月15日,即在联邦公报(Federal Register)正式发布的60天后生效,取代1999年起实行的《公共负担驱逐与不予受理临时指南》。USCIS将仅对在生效日期后邮寄(或电子方式提交)的申请使用《公共负担不予受理》最终规则,对于在规则生效日期前已递交的申请将按照原标准进行裁决。USCIS将在之后的公共宣传中,向公众提供更多有关该法案实行的具体信息和细则。

 

如果您感兴趣提交移民或非移民签证申请,或对新法案细则有任何疑虑,欢迎点此击处与专业律师预约免费咨询。

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