移民局对“12个月全职实习许可”的最新官方解读,跟你理解的可能并不一样

October 3, 2019

国际学生对CPT和OPT实习许可并不陌生,很多同学通过实习尝试专业领域内不同类型的工作,最终确定了自己职业发展的方向。对以往可以相对容易取得的CPT和OPT,移民局近年的审查却愈发严格,官方的解读在一些关键点上也和很多同学们常规的理解有所差异。今天,我们就一则真实案例,为大家举例说明:移民局对12个月全职实习许可的解读究竟是怎样的。

 

根据8 CFR214.2(f)(10)及 CFR214.2(f)(10)(i) CFR214.2(f)(10)(ii)对F-1国际学生工作许可的规定:

Practical training. Practical training may be authorized to an F-1 student who has been lawfully enrolled on a full time basis, in a Service-approved college,university, conservatory, or seminary for one full academic year....A student may be authorized 12 months of practical training, and becomes eligible for another 12 months of practical training when he or she changes to a higher educational level...There are two types of practical training available:

(i) Curricular practical training. 

(ii) Optional practical training.

 

如上述规定中描述,持有F-1签证的全职国际学生在入学满一学年后,可申请实习许可。实习许可分为CPT和OPT两大类。当学生已经获得12个月的实习许可后,只有攻读更高学历的学习项目,才能获得另外12个月的实习许可机会。

 

根据ICE对关于CPT及其对OPT影响的规定:

CPT is integral to your major and the experience must be part of your program of study.

...

If you have 12 months or more of full-time CPT, you are ineligible for OPT, but part-time CPTis fine and will not stop you from doing OPT.

 

通常CPT 可以是兼职(每周 20 小时内)或全职,只要是与专业直接相关,学生都可以通过申请CPT来获得相关的实习工作许可。但若学生在使用了12个月全职CPT后,其将失去在同等学位下使用OPT的资格。

 

于是在上述规定的指导下,很多同学认为,如果在完成12个月OPT实习后,再入读新的同级别学习项目,仍然可以获得全职CPT实习许可,然而移民局的官方解释并非如此。

 

最新真实案例解析

 

M同学是2020财年的H-1B申请受益人之一,在美国完成本科、研究生学习,并在此期间进行了CPT和OPT实习。与很多同学一样,M同学选择在完成研究生阶段的OPT实习后,再次回到学校深造,并在攻读第二个研究生专业的过程中进行了与专业相关的全职CPT实习。而问题就这样来了,移民局对M同学的H-1B申请下发了RFE补件通知。在这份RFE中,移民局没有对M同学的职位专业性(Specialty Occupation)、薪资等常见H-1B补件项目进行质疑,但要求其对自己的CPT和OPT实习许可进行充分说明,特别是针对在攻读第二个研究生学位过程中是否权利进行CPT实习进行解释说明。

 

为了针对移民局的要求做充分完整的说明,律师整理了M同学从第一份实习开始直到最近一份实习,共计五次实习的清晰时间表,相应雇主提供的实习证明,M同学就读学校开具的CPT实习许可等,并重新递交了M同学全部I-20,来充分证明其实习许可是经由学校批准并合法的。

 

最终审理结果显示,M同学的H-1B申请本身获批,但她的境内转换身份却被拒绝,究其原因就是因为其实习期超过了移民局规定的期限,因此未能一直在美维持有效的F-1身份,从而影响了其身份转换的批准。

 

移民局官方对12个月全职实习许可的解读

 

从上述真实案例的审理结果来看,移民局对学生CPT和OPT实习许可最官方的解释为:

学生在完成12个月实习期后,只有在进行或完成更高学位的学习时,才能获得额外12个月的全职实习许可。对于选择再攻读同等学位的国际学生,已使用的全职实习时间并不会因为再次入学而清零,如果有未使用完的OPT实习时间,学生仅可以使用12个月中剩余的时间段。

 

我们需提醒大家的是,移民局对实习期的规定和审查更加严格,对于CPT和OPT的使用规定也有非常详细的解读,因此在使用OPT和CPT时,一定要注意两者的时间均需在规定的合法范围之内,否则极有可能影响未来的H-1B申请。若您对实习许可期的解读或H-1B还有任何疑问,欢迎点击此处与专业律师预约咨询。 

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