• Matthew Kolodziej

特朗普针对国际留学生的逾期滞留政策,将被永久停止执行


2月6日,美国联邦地方法院法官发布了一项永久性禁令,禁止美国移民局(USCIS)执行2018年8月颁布的国际留学生及访问学者逾期滞留计算新规。几所美国高校及两名自然人原告针对美国移民局新规向联邦地方法院提出上诉,指控该政策与美国移民与国籍法案(INA)的法规相冲突,并且违反了《行政诉讼法》(APA)和《美国宪法》的正当程序条款。Loretta C. Biggs法官在6日的判决中支持原告,判定移民局新规在法律上无效,其认为该政策与非法居留的相关法规冲突,并应根据APA要求受到公众审评的约束。

这项颇受争议的政策颠覆了长期用于计算非法居留权的方法。在2018年8月之前,根据美国移民法规定,国际留学生、访问学者及其家属在未被明确告知违反有关身份规定之前,将不会造成非法居留。随着特朗普政府公布严打逾期滞留的外国人政策后,美国移民局也随即颁布有关学生和访 问学者签证持有人士逾期居留的计算新规。

该规定表明,自2018年8月9日开始,持有F类、M类、J类签证的留学生或访问学者及其家属,在完成课业后的第二天(包括OPT/CPT结束的第二天,以及毕业后60天宽限期结束的第二天),如果没有维持留美的有效身份,即算非法居留。若该政策被允许生效,影响将是巨大的。更多的留学生将被认定为非法居留,并且在逾期居留累计超过180天之后,会受到3年或10年的美国入境限制。被限制3年、10年或永不得入境的当事人,通常不具备申请签证、入境、或永久居留的合法资格,除非获得豁免。

目前,美国移民局被禁止执行其2018年8月颁布的新规。在未另行通知之前,将继续实行现有的逾期滞留政策,即国际留学生、访问学者及其家属在被移民局或移民法官明确告知违反有关身份规定之后,才会造成非法居留。此外,美国移民和海关执法局(ICE)正计划提出一项法规,将某些F-1和其他非移民签证的有效居留期限从身份有效期更改为指定的结束日期。

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